The first wave of baby boomers retires two years later. Experts suggest delaying retirement and walking quickly step by step

Guide: according to Yang Yansui, by the end of 2022, men born in 1963 will be 60 years old. They will retire in large numbers, and the burden of pension insurance will continue to increase. < p > < p > after the first wave of “baby boom” population has reached the threshold of 60, it will open the prelude to the arrival of China’s retirement peak. At that time, tens of millions of retirees will pose a great challenge to the financial balance of China’s endowment insurance fund. Although the accumulated balance of endowment insurance fund for enterprise employees in China is still 4.5 trillion yuan, it is difficult to adjust the surplus and shortage due to the uneven bitterness and happiness among regions. By the third quarter of this year, the central government has provided more than 580 billion yuan of special subsidies for local endowment insurance, which has been used for the pension payment in central and western regions and old industrial bases. In the opinion of Yang Yansui, director of the employment and social security research center of Tsinghua University, it is no longer allowed to postpone the retirement policy. At present, it is necessary to formulate specific plans and timetables for delaying retirement as soon as possible to cope with the retirement peak starting in 2023. According to Yang Yansui, the retirement policy needs to adapt to the new normal, and the gradual “step by step fast walk” is a more appropriate choice. Delaying retirement is not only a parameter reform of the endowment insurance system, but also the establishment of a pension system to adapt to the age of longevity. By “reducing early and increasing later”, everyone can decide when to work. < p > < p > First Finance and Economics: since 2012, you have been calling for the reform of the old-age insurance system and raising the legal age for receiving pensions. What are your considerations? < p > < p > Yang Yansui: every five years of population age increase, the whole economy, society and employment market will undergo a step qualitative change. The aging schedule has long determined that we must reform the retirement age. 1963 was the peak year of China’s birth, with more than 29 million people born in that year. In the next ten years, the annual birth population was more than 25 million. By the end of 2022, men born in 1963 will be 60 years old. They will retire in large numbers and the burden of pension insurance will continue to increase. < / P > < p > the impact of retirement on the endowment insurance fund is two-way. The payment is stopped today, and the money will start to be collected tomorrow. Therefore, the substantial increase in the number of retirees will definitely increase the pressure on the pension fund to make income and expenditure, and this effect will be immediate. Under the impact of aging, the financial situation of China’s endowment insurance fund is not optimistic. According to the budget of central adjustment fund in 2020, only 7 provinces are net contribution provinces, 21 provinces including Hunan, Anhui and Xinjiang production and Construction Corps are net benefit provinces. Therefore, it is urgent to raise the legal age insurance system from the end of the year to the end of the year. < p > < p > First Finance and Economics: the gradual delay of retirement is the main direction of the current reform, and the relevant departments also put forward the plan of “extending one year every three years” a few years ago. In your opinion, can a program like this one adapt to the current situation? Yang Yansui: Although the relevant departments have not published a complete plan for delaying retirement, some reform contents have been revealed in recent years. On the whole, the direction of gradual reform will not change, but I don’t think it will be so slow. If it is too late to walk in small steps like the original one, we should adopt the gradual “step by step fast walk” now. Because women’s retirement age is relatively early, women can delay retirement one step at a time, or both men and women can delay it at the same time. However, women’s delay is faster than men’s. after all, most of the posts are not hard jobs, and the working conditions of men and women are not very different. < p > < p > Yang Yansui: retirement is exit from the labor market. In the past, they were all state-owned enterprises. When they retired from their units, they had no other place to work, so they had to get pension to support themselves. However, fundamental changes have taken place in the current employment market. Older people can do a lot of work. Therefore, we should forget the concept of retirement and pay attention to the standard of age for receiving pension. The state will set up a mechanism of “reducing early and increasing later” so that people can make their own choices. The age of longevity also requires us to separate the retirement age from the pension age. In developed countries, the so-called statutory retirement age is actually the age for receiving pension. As for whether to quit the labor market or continue to work before receiving the pension, it depends on the individual’s own situation. < / P > < p > what I advocate is “early reduction and late increase”, that is, to set a standard age for receiving pension. The discount payment is lower than this age, and the reward can be given if the age is higher. This is an incentive for those who choose to postpone retirement. In addition, China now has the conditions of “early reduction and late increase”, and the average level of national pension has reached 3500 yuan. For example, if you leave early, you can get 3000 yuan or 2500 yuan, which will not cause poverty, but you can get more if you leave late. In this way, the common people will calculate by themselves how to arrange the retirement time, so that everyone can decide when they should work. < p > < p > First Finance and Economics: the biggest concern of the government in implementing the postponement of retirement should be the fear of affecting employment. On the one hand, it is worried about the occupation of young people’s jobs, on the other hand, it is also worried about the unemployment of these elderly people after the postponement of retirement. What are your suggestions in this regard? < p > < p > Yang Yansui: it is a misunderstanding that delaying retirement affects the employment of young people, especially after the rise of intelligence and Internet, many traditional jobs have been lost. Young people are young people’s posts, while older people are older people’s posts. There are few overlapping and crowding out effect is not obvious. < / P > < p > at the same time, the demand for aging has brought about a sharp increase in the number of posts in the medical and nursing industry, with a talent gap of more than 10 million. The longer the life span of the population is, the more people spend on medical care and maintenance, and the greater their contribution to GDP. There are many jobs in these industries. For example, the medical and nursing industry needs tens of millions of medical social workers and health managers. More importantly, the medical and nursing industry needs older people, especially older women, which can become an important employment field for women. < / P > < p > it must also be emphasized that delaying retirement is a public policy issue, and people can not adapt themselves. A series of problems such as employment service, job transfer training, social security, social status and company employment of the elderly need to be guaranteed by the government. Information sharing for epilepsy patients