Changes in the number of primary school students in 31 cities of Northeast China in six years

The change of the number of primary school students is an important indicator to measure the change of population flow in a city or a region. Since 2013, China’s regional economic development differentiation is obvious, especially the northeast region is facing greater downward pressure and population outflow. In this process, the number of primary school students also decreased significantly. < p > < p > the first financial reporter sorted out the number of primary school students in 31 cities in Northeast China since 2013. The number of primary school students in Shenyang, Dalian and Changchun has increased positively, while that of other cities, including Harbin, has decreased. Among them, Siping, Qiqihar and other cities have decreased greatly. < / P > < p > it should be noted that the data of some prefectures and cities are not included in the statistics; in addition, the data of Dalian is the data of compulsory education stage; the data of Huludao in 2013 is missing, so the data of 2014 is used here; Tonghua and Liaoyuan do not have the data of 2019 at present, and the data of 2018 are used here. < p > < p > statistics show that in 2013, there were 93.605 million students in ordinary primary schools in China. In 2019, the number was 105.612 million, an increase of 12.07 million in six years, an increase of 12.83%. However, in Northeast China, since 2013, the number of primary school students in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces has decreased, with 93000, 176300 and 261000 respectively. The total number of students in the three provinces has decreased by 530300, 10.7% compared with 2013. < p > < p > among the 31 cities mentioned above, only Shenyang, Dalian and Changchun have increased the number of primary school students. Among them, although the increment of Dalian has reached 62000, but since Dalian is the data of compulsory education stage, if it is evenly distributed to the primary school stage, the increment may be between 40000 and 50000. In contrast, Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning Province, has seen an increase of 59000 primary school students in the past six years, making it the city with the largest increase in total Northeast China. As the central city of the region and the only mega city in Northeast China, Shenyang has greatly relaxed the entry threshold in recent years to attract talents. At the beginning of April this year, Shenyang issued seven supplementary opinions to completely abolish the restrictions on the settlement of talents and further liberalize the settlement policy, so as to truly realize the “zero threshold” of talent settlement. According to local statistics, from April 3, 2020 to June 8, 2020, Shenyang has ushered in 22457 “new citizens” through the “new settlement policy”, of which, the majority of them are house buyers, three investors and talent introduction. This shows the attraction of Shenyang in Northeast China. In recent years, the total population of Shenyang has also increased significantly. According to the data, by the end of 2018, the city’s permanent resident population was 8.316 million, an increase of 0.3% over the end of the previous year, and the registered population was 7.46 million, an increase of 1.2%. By the end of 2019, Shenyang has a permanent population of 8.322 million and a registered population of 7.564 million. It can be seen that many permanent residents have changed into registered population. < / P > < p > the number of primary school students in Changchun in 2019 also reached 404000, an increase of 9000 over 2013. According to the statistical bulletin of Changchun in the past two years, the total registered population of Changchun at the end of 2018 was 7.513 million, and that of the end of 2019 was 7.538 million, which also increased significantly. < / P > < p > all the three cities with positive growth are sub provincial cities, which also shows that in the process of population outflow from Northeast China in recent years, some of them have gone to the southeast coastal areas, and some have gone to several central cities in the northeast. According to Yi Baozhong, Professor of Northeast Asia Research Institute of Jilin University, there is a big gap between ordinary prefecture level cities and these central cities in Northeast China. For example, in Jilin, the provincial capital Changchun is much more developed than other cities and cities, and education resources are concentrated. In this case, many people will send their children to the provincial capital city to study. In addition, primary school students go to the central city to study, often because their parents work in the central city, and there are more employment opportunities in big cities. In this case, the population and primary school students gradually concentrate in the central city. However, in the four sub provincial cities in Northeast China, the number of primary school students in Harbin also decreased, from 422300 in 2013 to 398800 in 2019, a decrease of 23500, with a small decline. On the one hand, Harbin has a total population of more than 10 million, but it has jurisdiction over 9 districts, 7 counties and 2 county-level cities. A considerable part of the population comes from the counties and cities under its jurisdiction. The population of these counties and cities is also flowing out, some of which are flowing to the districts of Harbin City and some to the coastal developed areas. The local retention rate of Harbin Institute of technology is only 11.89%. In the regional distribution of Harbin Institute of technology, the highest is Guangdong, accounting for 19.5%, and the second destination is Beijing, accounting for 17.13%. The provincial retention rate of graduates from Northeast University in Shenyang is only 17.2%, that of Jilin University in Changchun is 27.02%, and that of Dalian University of technology is only 27.54%. Beijing and Guangdong are the top two destinations of graduates from these famous universities. In addition, Shanghai, Zhejiang and other places are also the main employment places for graduates of famous universities in Northeast China. < / P > < p > of the 31 cities mentioned above, 28 cities had a decrease in primary school students, mainly from ordinary prefecture level cities, of which Siping and Qiqihar had a larger decline. < / P > < p > according to the data, there were 188500 primary school students in Siping in 2013, and 95600 in 2019, a decrease of 92900. According to the analysis of the first financial reporter in Yibao, Siping is close to Changchun, which is an integral part of the urban agglomeration in the central part of Jilin Province. According to yibaozhong, the decrease in the number of primary school students in ordinary prefecture level cities is mainly due to the underdeveloped industry, which leads to less employment opportunities, the outflow of young people, and the overall aging degree is relatively high. The change of the number of primary school students is only a microcosm. In Northeast China, except for four sub provincial cities, none of the ordinary prefecture level cities has entered the ranks of China’s top 100 GDP cities. Yibaozhong said that most of the prefecture level cities in Northeast China are cities with relatively simple industrial structure, which are developed because of the needs of a certain industry. Due to the lack of comprehensive urban functions, once a certain industry declines, the economy of the whole city will lose its development vitality. < p > < p > especially with the downward trend of energy prices since 2014, these prefecture level cities with single industrial structure are facing greater pressure, and many cities are in a shrinking situation. Among them, Hegang, Jixi, Anshan, Fushun, Benxi, Mudanjiang and other cities have a large population reduction. According to Ding Changfa, associate professor of economics at Xiamen University, the balanced development of regions mainly refers to the balance of per capita GDP and per capita income, rather than the balance of total amount. We should allow capital, labor and other elements to flow freely. For example, many people in Northeast China have gone to the central cities and developed coastal areas, where there are good land resources to develop agriculture. In this way, the land resources per capita and per household will be greatly improved. From a dynamic point of view, it is also conducive to the balanced development of the region. HEALTHY LIFE