Don’t put any kind of mushroom into your mouth easily!

Not long ago, novel coronavirus pneumonia in Yunnan in the first half of 2020 was more than the number of deaths from new crown pneumonia in Yunnan. There have been 273 cases of wild bacterial poisoning in Yunnan Province, 12 people died. There are not a few cases of poisoning caused by wild bacteria every year. Unless you are a Mycologist or experienced gatherer, do not eat wild mushrooms easily.

every year, July and February is the season to eat mushrooms. Especially in Yunnan and Guizhou, eating fresh mushrooms is the only choice at present. For those who are outside these places, the recent fresh photos of precious edible mushrooms in the circle of friends, especially matsutake, may be admired as much as the specifications of Hermes platinum bags.

Tricholoma matsutake is not the only one who can get extra attention. It is much cheaper than Tricholoma matsutake, dried mushroom and chicken fir fungus. It has become a hot topic because of poisoning caused by eating raw food. Since the late middle of the month, in addition to the traditional gourmands, many people have actively asked the sellers whether they can have hallucinations after eating on Taobao and other online platforms. Some sellers even directly put “hallucinogenic mushrooms” ”Words like “psychedelic fungus” are included in the trade name.

“can you see villains dancing after eating?” “Can you see the elves by eating this?” “How to eat to see the pleasant goat?” “Can you see Smurfs when you eat raw?” “The taste doesn’t matter, mainly because I want to see the elves. Would you like to call for help when you haven’t eaten or after eating?”… ”

wild mushrooms are delicious, but these seemingly joking buyers may be in danger because of their strange ideas and actions. Because it is a kind of “conditional edible fungus”, it is necessary to cook reasonably, eat appropriately and pay attention to individual differences in order to avoid danger.

it is reported that 273 cases of wild bacteria poisoning have occurred in Yunnan Province and 12 people have died, according to an announcement issued by the health and Health Commission of Yunnan Province on July 27. The announcement also said that compared with the same period last year, the number of poisoning cases decreased by 33.90%, the number of cases decreased by 35.64%, and the number of deaths decreased by 17.

it can be seen that there are not a few cases of poisoning caused by wild bacteria every year. Don’t throw any mushrooms into your mouth unless you’re a Mycologist or highly experienced gatherer.

in the magical mushroom world, there are delicious Morchella and Boletus, as well as the ghost umbrella that can turn into ink, egg nest fungus that looks like a bird’s nest, a cage like cap fungus, a marshmallow like slippery mallet, Cordyceps occupying insect bodies, truffles collected by flies and pigs Of course, there are first-class delicious mushrooms, common varieties that can be imported but not very delicious, as well as dangerous elements that can cause gastrointestinal discomfort and even poisoning.

in fairy tales, lovely mushrooms are particularly vigilant in daily life because of their gorgeous colors, because past experience tells us that gorgeous mushrooms are poisonous. Is that true? There may be more poisonous mushrooms than we think. For example, the color is not bright brown scale small umbrella, white poison Amanita, autumn helmet spore fungus and so on fungus are extremely toxic, once ingested may be fatal.

, [Dan] Thomas leithers, translated by Hao Yanjia, Boji tianjuan, Hunan Science and Technology Press, April 2020.

the mushroom world is complex. In nature, mushrooms are much richer and more complex in shape, color and living habits than we usually think. Some data show that there are about 36000 kinds of mushrooms in the world, of which only more than 2000 kinds can be eaten. The purpose of identifying mushrooms is to find delicious mushrooms and avoid poisonous ones, but it is much more difficult to do in practice than expected.

many people say that mushrooms with extra bright colors are mostly poisonous. For example, the classic poisonous mushroom “poisonous fly goose paste” which often appears in fairy tales, and several other kinds of red mushrooms with delicate colors, such as red mushrooms with poison, red mushrooms with blood, and red mushrooms with spicy color, such as the famous ICU mushroom big green pleated umbrella and the scale handle white goose paste nicknamed “destroying angel” are not very normal.

the poisonous fly Amanita is a classic poisonous mushroom in fairy tales. This mushroom is not as lethal as people usually think, but it is also highly toxic, so it should be avoided in any case.

but there are also some bright mushrooms, such as Lactarius deliciosa, crimson wet umbrella, amethyst, and so on. There are a lot of edible Boletus, but there are also some bright colored and poisonous mushrooms in these edible mushrooms, such as Boletus marmoreus, whose cap is orange red and whose stalk will turn gray blue quickly after being cut.

delicious mushrooms with bad color also include Tricholoma cinerea. Another color similar to its ugly Lactarius, but also secreted spicy white juice, may cause cancer.

conversely, some mushrooms with honest appearance and color are actually low-key assassins. In Europe, for example, about 10% of fungal poisoning is caused by this fungus. Another example is jiexiaogu, which looks soft and cute. It looks like a watermelon red hat worn by little red cap, which does not prevent it from being poisonous.

it has also been said that mushrooms with irritating or unpleasant smell are mostly poisonous. So, is smell a precise criterion for identifying toxicity? For example, Boletus satanicus is not only toxic from the name, but also has a bad smell in the mature fruiting body. In fact, Boletus Satan is slightly toxic and can cause gastrointestinal discomfort.

is it reliable to divide them into families and genera? It’s not reliable. For example, the XX goose paste, which is famous for its poisonous fungi, also has something to eat, while the Boletus, which includes many delicious mushrooms, is also poisonous.

it’s feasible in theory, but in practice, some poisonous mushrooms look like edible mushrooms. For example, galena striata is similar to the edible Kuhn mushroom. The appearance of this fungus is very similar to that of edible Kuhn mushroom, but the stipe below the ring is not scaly, and the stipe of Kuhn mushroom is covered with sharp scales. The consumption of helminthia striata will cause serious poisoning events.

in general, the appearance of mushrooms is deceptive. There are flamboyant poisonous mushrooms, soft sprouting poisonous mushrooms, and low-key black poisonous mushrooms; delicious mushrooms may also look like a villain. Classification by category is not very reliable. Even if you know that mushroom can be eaten, you may be cheated by a similar poisonous mushroom.

so, the most useful thing is to keep up with experienced mycologists and mushroom pickers. Without such an old hand, we should not easily throw any kind of mushroom into our mouth. Their experience has been accumulated with countless lessons. In the matter of life preservation, experience is more reliable than theory.