Fourth, the collapse of the wall of the Ming and Qin palace in Xi’an: are the emergency measures taken by the competent authorities adequate?

On August 8, part of the wall of the Ming Dynasty Lord Qin’s mansion collapsed in the southwest corner of the new city square in the center of Xi’an, causing damage to four cars and abrading four people. According to the preliminary investigation and judgment of the relevant local departments, the collapsed part is the newly built protective soil body of the original city wall site and the brick masonry outside the northeast side. The collapse was caused by the recent continuous heavy rain.

However, the investigation by Xinhua News Agency found that: Why did the protective soil and brick body of the city wall seriously damaged before the site itself after years of repeated maintenance? Is the safety of the site affected by the number of non heritage buildings less than 10 meters away from the site? Cracks have appeared in the wall during flood season. Has the competent department prepared and implemented the emergency plan in accordance with the regulations? How to carry out the follow-up troubleshooting and repair work? These questions need to be answered by the local authorities.

the reporter learned that the palace of the king of Qin was the residence of the king of the Ming Dynasty. It was built in the Hongwu Period of the Ming Dynasty. It has a history of more than 600 years. In 2003, it was listed as the fourth batch of cultural relics protection units in Shaanxi Province.

Chen Ping, a member of the on-site expert group and professor of Xi’an University of architecture and technology, said that in the previous restoration project, protective soil and external bricks were added to the outer layer of the exposed rammed earth in the Ming Dynasty. After field investigation, the expert group determined that the collapsed part was the newly built protective soil mass of the original city wall site and the brick masonry outside the northeast side, which did not damage the rammed earth of the original Ming Dynasty wall. According to the expert group, the recent continuous heavy rain in Xi’an has led to the infiltration of rainwater, which has softened the Loess in the wall and produced lateral pressure, which pushed the wall outward, leading to the collapse of relevant walls.

However, the reporter learned that from 2007 to 2011, the local government carried out brick wrapping and rammed earth filling and reinforcement for the remaining walls of the Ming and Qin palace. In the past ten years, the wall has been repaired many times. Among the many open-air ruins of Xi’an similar to its time, it only fell in the rain this time.

according to the Department of cultural relics protection and Archaeology of the State Administration of cultural relics, the renovation project of ancient buildings has its particularity, pertinence and uncertainty. In recent years, in order to further strengthen the repair project management and improve the quality of the repair project, the competent department has issued a number of normative documents on the basis of it. The reporter found that there are some contents in the relevant documents that require the construction design for the repair of cultural relics in terms of flood control and drainage.

is there any deficiency in the design structure specification of the wall repair project? Is the project quality up to standard? This reporter contacted the Xi’an Municipal Bureau of cultural relics, which did not make an explanation.

the reporter found that there were many hotels, office buildings and other buildings on the south side of the Ming and Qin palace, some of which were less than 10 meters away from the wall. Experts said that such regulations have strict regulations on buildings within the protection scope of cultural protection units and adjacent cultural protection units, in order to avoid increasing the protection risk.

the Shaanxi Provincial Bureau of cultural relics told reporters that these buildings had existed before the site was listed as the fourth batch of cultural relics protection units in Shaanxi Province in 2003, which is a problem left over by history.

the reporter learned at the scene that the local cultural relics department had found cracks in the wall related walls, and in early August, a separation belt was set up on the north side of the wall to prohibit pedestrians from entering the sidewalk under the wall. The reporter learned from Mr. Zhou, a citizen living near the city wall, that it was not the first time that cracks appeared in this section of the city wall. Last summer, there were cracks due to rain erosion, and maintenance was carried out.

the administrative departments of cultural relics at or above the county level are required to formulate prevention plans for major cultural relics safety accidents and implement relevant safety protection measures. The relevant person in charge of the Department of cultural relics protection and Archaeology of the State Administration of cultural relics also told reporters that the competent authorities required the relevant construction projects to formulate emergency plans, carry out safety assessment, and take protective measures to ensure the safety of ancient buildings.

Xi’an Municipal Bureau of cultural relics told reporters that the province, city and district have arranged and arranged the safety work of cultural relics in flood season, put forward work requirements, and conducted supervision and inspection. Concerning the masonry section of the restoration and protection of the Ming and Qin palace walls, the local cultural relics department in the new urban area has arranged for temporary protection in the early stage. Canopy, drainage ditch and isolation facilities have been set up on the top of the wall.

However, the relevant persons in charge of Xi’an Municipal Bureau of cultural relics and other departments did not reply to the questions raised by the reporter, such as “whether the prevention plan for major cultural relic safety accidents has been prepared in accordance with regulations” and “whether the relevant measures have been taken to cope with the risk level are sufficient”.

some cultural protection experts believe that in the face of repeated damage signals of walls and obvious disaster environment, only measures such as erecting canopy and adding drainage ditch are adopted, but no protective measures are taken for places with obvious hidden dangers.

the relevant person in charge of the Department of cultural relics protection and Archaeology of the State Administration of cultural relics said that the State Administration of cultural relics required local cultural relics departments to discover the hidden dangers of ancient buildings in time and make emergency plans in advance. For the ancient buildings with dangerous situation, on the one hand, relevant measures should be taken to ensure the safety of personnel; on the other hand, the rescue plan of ancient buildings should be prepared to eliminate the danger of cultural relics in time.

it is understood that the cultural relics department of Xi’an has organized an expert group to carry out investigation and consultation on the 8th to reinforce and restore the protective layer of the city wall. According to the consultation opinions of the expert group, after clearing the collapsed soil mass and blocks in the North collapse area, the corresponding protective masonry in the collapse area will be partially unloaded, the scope and depth of water seepage will be investigated, and temporary rain proof and protective measures will be taken for the demolished parts. Wang Xiaoyong, a cultural expert at Shaanxi Academy of Social Sciences, believes that we should learn from the building materials, traditional crafts and maintenance procedures used in ancient times to repair the walls of the Ming and Qin royal palace in order to solve the technical problems of drainage, seepage and pressure bearing of cultural relics. At the same time, Xi’an city has begun to conduct a comprehensive risk investigation on the cultural relics protection units in the city.

song Xinchao, deputy director of the State Administration of cultural relics, said in an interview with reporters on the safety of cultural relics during the flood season that, in some places, there is a lack of targeted guidance in disaster prevention and mitigation measures in cultural relic restoration, and many cultural relics have not yet played their own disaster prevention and mitigation functions well. The disaster prevention and mitigation work of some local cultural relics has not received due attention, and the disaster prevention and mitigation of cultural relics has not been included as an important and special content in the local natural geological disaster monitoring and early warning and disaster prevention and mitigation system. At the same time, the grass-roots cultural relics departments and cultural relics protection and management institutions are weak in team building and personnel strength is generally insufficient.

the reporter learned that the institutional functions of Xi’an Municipal Bureau of cultural relics were incorporated into the Municipal Bureau of culture and tourism in 2019, and it was not reorganized until the first half of this year. At present, the official website has not yet been online, and its investment in cultural relics protection and renovation can not be inquired.

Wan Jinhong, senior engineer of China Academy of water resources and hydropower, suggested that the online and offline monitoring system of cultural relic disaster risk should be built with the help of Internet, cloud computing, blockchain, geographic information system and big data analysis, and a special risk assessment system and expert diagnosis system should be developed Online risk diagnosis cloud support platform, thus improving the overall level of cultural relics disaster risk management and control.

song Xinchao said that it was necessary to strengthen the risk assessment of cultural relics disasters, and consider, design and implement simultaneously the disaster prevention and anti disaster measures for cultural relics, such as building reinforcement, earthquake prevention, seepage control and flood discharge. We will improve a series of emergency response procedures and measures such as monitoring and early warning, risk assessment and judgment, disaster prevention, disaster response, information reporting, and post disaster repair and repair, and carry out emergency training and drills, so as to effectively enhance the ability of cultural relic safety emergency disposal. The central government and governments at all levels have set up special funds for disaster prevention and mitigation of cultural relics, so as to enhance their ability to resist disasters and ensure disaster relief.