Grasp the “golden period” of physical development of children and adolescents

Piaget, a famous psychologist, believes that children’s intelligence originates from action. Physical activity is not only the basic way to realize movement development, but also an important way to improve children’s physical quality. The development of children’s physical quality not only promotes their active outdoor activities, but also plays an important role in the development of sports habits and the health level of adults.

from the perspective of children’s growth and development of body shape, skeleton and muscle, the order is: first distal to proximal, first limbs to trunk, first lower limbs to upper limbs, that is, foot → leg → whole lower limb → hand → forearm → upper limb as a whole → trunk as a whole. From the physical quality of children’s growth and development, with the growth of age, the continuous improvement of children’s organ system function, the development of sports ability presents obvious wave shape and stage characteristics, and the physical quality also develops with the increase of age.

the so-called “golden period” of physical quality development is actually a certain stage in the growth and development of children and adolescents. The ability development of a certain physical quality is relatively rapid. This stage is often called the “sensitive period” of a certain physical quality development. The physical fitness of boys and girls has little difference before the age of 12, but the gender difference of physical fitness between 13 and 17 years old will expand rapidly. Puberty is the accelerated period of physical development, the speed of physical development is fast and large. When the sexual maturity period ends, the growth rate of physical fitness begins to slow down, and the natural growth of physical quality after 25 years old ends. If there is no training, the physical quality will not be further improved.

the power source of all human random movement is the result of muscle contraction activity under the control of central nervous system. The various abilities of muscles in their activities, such as strength, speed, endurance, agility, flexibility and balance, are collectively referred to as physical quality. Good physical quality is the basis of all kinds of sports ability, and strength quality is the basis of all qualities.

because there is a significant difference in the secretion of sex hormones between men and women during puberty, male hormones can promote the development of strength, so after puberty, the strength of men is generally greater than that of girls. After puberty, the strength quality of children is still growing, but the growth rate is reduced. The muscle strength of women reaches the maximum value around 20 years old, and the muscle strength of men reaches the maximum value when they are 20-30 years old. After the age of 40, the muscle strength began to decline. After the age of 50, the muscle strength decreased by 12% ~ 14% every 10 years. At about 70 years old, most people’s muscle strength was only about 30% ~ 60% of its peak value.

the simplest way to develop strength quality is to carry out strength training. However, some parents are still worried about whether the strength training will affect the height of the child and whether the strength training will make the child a “lump in the flesh”. In fact, there is no need to have these concerns. Children’s height is more affected by family genes. Secondly, it is also related to the nutritional intake and living environment of children during their growth. Maybe some parents may say, “if you look at the athletes who practice weightlifting, they will not grow long. If you look at those basketball and volleyball players, they will grow tall if they jump frequently.” It is incorrect to say that athletes in every sport we see have been selected through strict “athlete selection”, which is based on the type and characteristics of different sports events, combined with the athletes’ family genetic genes, bone age, special skills and other factors. Therefore, proper strength training can promote bone development, enhance immunity, and also has a positive effect on children’s body shape development.

in various sports, “speed” is called the soul and core, and the development of speed quality is earlier than strength quality. Usually, we can divide it into three kinds according to their performance in motion: reaction speed, action speed and displacement speed.

in the process of the development of speed quality, the golden period of the development of reaction speed comes first, about 9-12 years old; the movement speed is about 7-11 years old, and the displacement speed is about 7-14 years old and 7-12 years old.

we suggest that when early children practice speed quality, they can focus on the practice of reaction speed, such as some table tennis, badminton and other small ball exercises, or organize children to play sandbags, 123 wooden people and other interesting games. Because the development of movement speed and displacement speed needs a certain amount of muscle strength support, so children can be trained together in the later stage of strength training. Taking part in ball games can well develop movement speed and displacement speed, such as football, badminton, tennis and volleyball to develop children’s upper limb strength, speed and explosive force.

endurance quality refers to the ability of human body to continuously work with muscles under certain intensity. We can also call it “anti fatigue ability”, which is usually divided into aerobic endurance and anaerobic endurance. The development of children’s endurance quality is later than that of speed quality.

from the age of 14, the aerobic capacity of girls is significantly lower than that of boys, about 85%. The aerobic capacity of girls has entered the plateau period from about 14 years old, and the growth rate is relatively slow, while that of boys has been increasing to 18 years old. Therefore, the golden age of aerobic endurance in girls is between 12 and 14 years old, while that of boys is 12-16 years old.

the development of endurance quality is closely related to children’s physical function, internal energy supply and cardiopulmonary function. Before puberty, the cardiovascular system and strength quality of children are not fully developed, so it is suitable to carry out moderate intensity aerobic endurance exercises, such as brisk walking, cycling, ball games, swimming, etc. In late adolescence, children can increase the intensity of anaerobic endurance training, such as high-intensity interval training, trying to change speed, etc.

agility quality is the comprehensive performance of sports ability, nerve reaction and various qualities. It is our ability to control strength, time and space. In short, one of its manifestations is the precise orientation in space, such as emergency stop, take-off, change direction, Dodge, etc. 7-10 years old children’s agility quality increases fastest, and 10-12 years old gradually stable. Therefore, it is suggested that children should combine speed training before 13-14 years old, such as running around obstacles, distance increasing / decreasing round-trip running, etc.

the quality of balance and coordination has been formed and played an important role in our early learning. The development of balance and coordination quality can not only effectively improve exercise ability and vestibular organ function, but also promote the central nervous system to regulate and control muscles and organs of the body. The development of balance and coordination quality of children aged 6-13 is the fastest. During this period, you can take the child to walk the balance beam, simple rope ladder practice, or take the child to play “cockfight”, Taiji push hands, touch the blind and other interesting games.

early training of flexibility is particularly important. The better the flexibility is, the more harmonious and stretching they will be in some sports. It will play an important role in the growth and development of children and the improvement of their sports level in the future. The development of flexibility quality of children aged 5-12 is the fastest. During this period, children’s joint flexibility is good, we should strengthen the whole body’s flexibility exercise, especially the hip flexibility exercise. However, it is necessary to remind parents that the improvement of children’s flexibility quality needs to be based on certain strength quality. During the period of 5-12 years old, due to the relatively weak strength of children, it is not necessary to encourage them when carrying out flexibility training, so as to avoid damaging the spine, hip joint and cartilage tissue. Flexibility exercises can be put in the warm-up before and after each exercise, or the flexibility exercises can be put in the morning and after school in the afternoon, so as to form a good habit of long-term flexibility exercises.

interest is the best teacher for children. In the “golden period” of children’s physical quality development, it is necessary to cultivate children’s interest in physical activities and sports, so as to form good sports habits, and lay a solid foundation for the comprehensive development of children’s physical and mental health in the future! CUISINE&HEALTH