How difficult is it for left behind children to be blocked out by kindergartens?

Yuanhang and his grandfather live in zhaishi village, miaogai Township, Songtao County, Guizhou Province. Altman and TV are his best friends. See a guest to come, he is a little excited to pull the guest to his homework hut to play with grandfather’s gramophone. When the guests said goodbye, Yuanhang’s smile disappeared and hid behind his grandfather with tears in his eyes. < p > < p > loneliness is the most common emotion of long voyage. Yuanhang’s parents divorced a few years ago, and his father worked in Xiamen, Fujian Province. He rarely showed up for a year. “It seems that my mother works in Guangdong, but we don’t really know.” Zhaishi Village Mountain Village Kindergarten volunteer Zhu Jing said quietly. After eight months of age, Yuanhang never saw her mother again. He was brought up by his grandfather. An old man in his seventies stopped farming and did some odd jobs at home. < p > < p > Yuanhang doesn’t talk much with his grandfather. He likes to watch cartoons, and he doesn’t mind watching TV. But to his grandfather’s satisfaction, Yuanhang always took the initiative to help him with the housework. I’m young. I can’t do it well, but I’ll learn something and want to share it with my grandfather. “The teacher in the kindergarten teaches us to do our own things. When he comes back, he will help us do them.” < / P > < p > loneliness, lack of company In the village kindergarten of zhaishi village, there are many children like Ao Yuanhang. Zhu Jing introduced that there are more than 20 students in zhaishi village kindergarten. The students come from zhaishi village and several surrounding villages. Most of them are left behind children and their families are poor. < p > < p > thanks to the kindergarten built in the village, it takes only ten minutes to walk for preschool education at home. Entering the school gate of zhaishi Wan Primary School and walking up a high slope, two single storey houses with color walls are particularly conspicuous in the gray buildings of the campus. This is the kindergarten of zhaishi mountain village. < / P > < p > the kindergarten classroom is spacious and bright. There are more than a dozen low tables covered with tie dyed tablecloths with Miao characteristics. The tables are full of toys and teaching aids. This mountain village kindergarten adopts a mixed age teaching mode. The teachers are volunteers with normal education background recruited by the local public, that is, preschool teachers who have no establishment. < p > < p > in the mountain village kindergarten, according to the teaching outline of the mountain village kindergarten, the volunteers exercise children’s cognition, expression and interpersonal skills through various games and courses. In addition, volunteers also take on more responsibilities of home visits to help parents communicate with their children left at home. Every month, Ao Yuanhang’s father will send back 500 yuan living expenses to Zhu Jing, a volunteer, who will then transfer it to Yuanhang’s grandfather, who can’t use a mobile phone. < / P > < p > in Zhongcha village, many children are left behind children who are brought up by grandparents. “The older generation often have no concept of family education. They think it’s OK to bring up their children in a healthy way. They don’t pay much attention to their habits and emotional needs.” Long Linying, who has been a volunteer in Zhongcha village kindergarten for five years, said. Long Linying consciously popularized family rearing knowledge to the students’ grandparents in her work, but the effect was not satisfactory. The task of forming children’s habits falls on kindergarten teachers. “At ordinary times, the housework at home is very busy, and I have no time to learn the knowledge of family parenting. Children can watch TV quietly at home.” A student’s grandmother told her that after going to a kindergarten in a mountain village, the child would take the initiative to do some housework within her ability. On the way to school, she would tell her grandparents to “walk on the right side of the road and stay away from the car.”. Songtao county is located at the east foot of Fanjing Mountain, the main peak of Wuling mountains, at the junction of Guizhou, Hunan and Chongqing, with a total population of 740000. It is one of the five earliest Miao Autonomous Counties in China, and is also a famous “old, young, frontier and poor” area. In March this year, the people’s Government of Guizhou Province announced that 24 areas including Songtao county had withdrawn from poverty-stricken counties, and Songtao county was able to achieve poverty alleviation. Gao Guoqing, director of the office of China Development Research Foundation, has visited Songtao for many times. He recalls that in 2012, there were only 27 kindergartens in Songtao County, of which 20 were private kindergartens, and there were only 3 public kindergartens in the county. According to the data of Songtao county government, the gross enrollment rate of preschool education in Songtao County in 2011 was only 56%. In 2012, CCTV economic channel broadcast a party focusing on left behind children. At the party, a girl named Tang Jinmei moved many people. Tang Jinmei lives in Jizao village, Songtao county. At that time, she was 5 years old and had a strong desire to go to school. Whenever she was free, she would cross a river, climb a mountain, and walk to Jizao village primary school to listen. After listening to Tang Jinmei’s story, Lu Mai, then Secretary General of China Development Research Foundation, stepped onto the stage and promised to build a mountain village kindergarten in Songtao County, so that “little Jinmei” could learn. Since 2009, China Development Research Foundation has carried out “one village, one garden: mountain village kindergarten plan” in Ledu, Qinghai Province and XUNDIAN, Yunnan Province, and formed policy recommendations. According to the foundation’s plan, “as long as there are 10 school-age children in the village, the foundation will build a kindergarten.”. After three years of practice, “children can’t afford to wait” has become the internal consensus of the foundation, and they hope to promote the implementation of “mountain village kindergarten” throughout the country. Songtao became the first station to push forward to the whole country. At the beginning of the project, Cao Yan, deputy director of children’s center of China Development Research Foundation, went to Songtao for preliminary research. At that time, there were no kindergartens in villages with better conditions, even in the vicinity of urban areas and highways. What impressed her was a pair of brothers and sisters. The elder sister was six or seven years old. She was smart and lively, but she was deaf in both ears. In order to take care of their children, parents did not go out to work and faced great economic pressure. At the age of entering the kindergarten, the elder sister and the younger brother are hard to get the chance to enter the kindergarten. They lack the attention of public welfare organizations, and the elder sister is also hard to get the opportunity of rehabilitation training. “In remote and poor places, children are very lack of outside attention and help. If healthy children do not receive pre-school education, there will be great problems in the development of primary school in the future. ” The early development of children in poor areas is not optimistic. In 2009, at the beginning of the “mountain village kindergarten” pilot project, China Development Research Foundation commissioned Peking University to conduct a baseline survey in Ledu, Qinghai Province. The results show that the cognitive development level of 3-6-year-old children in poverty-stricken areas is less than 60% of urban children; language development level is only 40% of urban children of the same age. According to the follow-up survey data of China Development Research Foundation, only 19.2% of the children who did not receive preschool education in Ledu District of Qinghai Province could exceed the average score in the unified examination by the fifth grade. According to the research by James Heckman, Nobel Laureate in economics, preschool education has the highest investment cost-effectiveness compared with school education and various vocational education after adulthood. Preschool education plays a positive role in breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. < p > < p > < p > < p > “mountain village kindergarten plan” is mostly built in the spare school buildings, village committees and Party members’ activity rooms in idle village primary schools and hope primary schools, so the site problem can be solved. China Development Research Foundation mainly invests its limited funds into the construction and daily operation of teachers. < / P > < p > in Songtao, mountain village kindergartens mainly recruit preschool education graduates from local secondary vocational colleges. They are young people with preschool education related education or professional background and have worked in urban kindergartens. Cao Yan told us that the teachers recruited were mostly local people from Songtao, with strong stability. On the one hand, mountain village kindergartens formulate teaching contents according to the national kindergarten education guidelines, and at the same time integrate local characteristics into the teaching. The teacher training is entrusted to the public park in the county. China Development Research Foundation raises funds from the society and is responsible for paying the operating expenses of kindergartens and teacher training. According to the estimation of China Development Research Foundation, the annual investment of a kindergarten is about 30000-50000 yuan, including less than 20% of the infrastructure, and the subsidy and training of preschool teachers account for more than 50% of the total cost. In Songtao, the foundation provides 25000 yuan per year for each project site, and its main purpose is to pay the wages of volunteers. In 2014, Songtao experience was promoted in Tongren City. Xia Qingfeng, then Secretary of Tongren municipal Party committee, took the lead in promoting the introduction, and decided to build 2000 Rural Kindergartens in the city within two years. Within two years, Tongren City has invested 150 million yuan to build 2005 mountain village kindergartens. The coverage rate of rural preschool education resources in Tongren City has changed from less than 10% to full coverage, which has solved the problem of more than 40000 rural children entering kindergartens. The gross enrollment rate of preschool education in Songtao county increased from 59.4% in 2013 to 88.1% in 2016. At the time of the most < / P > < p >, a total of 494 mountain village kindergartens were built in Songtao county. In recent years, with the acceleration of urbanization and relocation of residents, some mountain village kindergartens in Songtao county have been closed, and 295 kindergartens are still in operation. In 2015, the mountain village kindergarten project of China Development Research Foundation ended in Songtao. The 100 mountain village kindergartens in the project site are adjusted from free enrollment to 200 yuan per semester for the daily expenses of kindergartens and the wages of volunteers. According to Ao Yuanhang’s grandfather, the total cost of nursery and drinking water in zhaishishan village kindergarten is only 400 yuan per semester. “We can’t afford to send the kindergartens in town. I can’t pick them up when I’m old. Let him go to the village.” According to the reporter’s visit to Songtao County, many qualified families choose to rent houses in the town to facilitate children’s reading, while the tuition fees of private kindergartens in Songtao county are more than 2000 yuan per semester. Take taipingying village child star kindergarten as an example. The tuition fee of the kindergarten is 2580 yuan per semester. The kindergarten has a school bus to pick up students, which can radiate villages within a radius of five kilometers. The director of the child star kindergarten told us that 19% of the children’s families in the kindergarten rent houses in the town, with the cost ranging from 200 yuan to 500 yuan per month. The monthly salary of kindergarten volunteers in mountain villages of Songtao county is generally around 2000 yuan, while that of teachers with local establishment is more than 3000 yuan. Long Linying admits that it is difficult to support the family with a salary of 2000 yuan, and the family’s life depends more on her husband who drives an excavator. “Although the salary is relatively low, I like this job very much, so I stick to it.” Long Linying said. According to Cao Yan, the volunteer team of mountain village kindergartens is still relatively stable. In Ledu County, Qinghai Province, 23 of the 46 kindergarten volunteers recruited by the foundation in 2009 are still on the job. Local governments are also trying to improve the treatment of volunteers. Taking Songtao County as an example, Songtao county has paid “three dangers and one gold” for kindergarten volunteers in mountain villages, and plans to raise the volunteer’s salary by 500-1000 yuan. At the same time, when the volunteer service of mountain village kindergarten has expired for more than one year, they can enjoy the preferential policy of adding 3 points in the recruitment of kindergarten teachers. The effect of mountain village kindergarten is obvious to all. In cooperation with Peking University and East China Normal University, China Development Research Foundation has conducted a baseline survey and tracking test on the development of children’s language, cognition, movement and memory. The results show that after the implementation of the plan, the early childhood development in the pilot areas has been significantly improved, and the gap with urban children has been greatly reduced. < / P > < p > as of June 2019, the China Development Research Foundation has cooperated with local governments, and