Investigation on nurseries of infants under 3 years old

Recently, the National Health Commission and the local health commission frequently went to various places to investigate infant care services, and the introduction of a number of local documents has continuously promoted the implementation of infant care policies. < p > < p > on November 10, the investigation group of Shandong Provincial Health Commission went to Huantai County, Zibo City to investigate the care services for infants and young children under 3 years old. They requested to fully implement the requirements of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, further improve the family support policy system, take the initiative to innovate, adhere to the family oriented, child care and supplement, take the city as the guide and supplement, and give full play to the government’s guiding role Social forces should be mobilized to carry out infant care services in various forms. From the end of October to the beginning of November, relevant documents or plans have been issued in Beijing, Guangxi, Jiangmen, Anshan, Deyang and other cities to standardize and promote the development of infant care. < / P > < p > “if I have the right total care facility, I can go out to work.” Luo Ying, a full-time mother living in Kaiping City, Guangdong Province, told 21st century economic news that she had a daughter who was going to be one year old and had been taking care of her baby at home since the birth of her child, but she really wanted to go out to work. Huang Wenzheng, a senior researcher and demographer at the think tank on China and globalization, told 21st century economic reporter that there is a consensus that the burden of raising children is too heavy, especially for professional women. In order to cope with the aging population, we propose to develop the inclusive care service system to reduce the cost of fertility, parenting and education. < p > < p > if we can take care of work and family, it is the most ideal state for modern Chinese families, especially for professional women, but the reality is often not both. < p > < p > at present, many working mothers are faced with the situation that it is not easy to give birth to a baby, and it is more difficult to bring a baby with them. Especially, kindergartens accept children aged from 3 to 6 years old, but there is no place for infants under 3 years old. In May 2019, the general office of the State Council issued a proposal to give priority to the development of inclusive care institutions, and clarify the relevant policy support and department responsibilities. < p > < p > it is proposed that, by 2020, the policy, regulation and standard system of infant care service will be initially established, and a number of infant care service institutions with demonstration effect will be established, the level of infant care service will be improved, and the demand for infant care service of the people will be initially met. < p > < p > by 2025, the system of policies, regulations and standards for infant care services will be basically sound, a diversified and diversified infant care service system covering urban and rural areas will be basically formed, the level of infant care services will be significantly improved, and the needs of the people for infant care services will be further met. < p > < p > in October this year, it was announced that 1-2 infant care service institutions with demonstration effect and certain guiding function should be built in all districts and counties by the end of 2020. By 2025, a diversified and diversified infant care service system covering urban and rural areas will be basically formed. < / P > < p > also issued in October, each district selects two inclusive kindergartens with all conditions to set up a nursery school pilot to enroll children aged 2 to 3. By 2025, the number of support places per thousand permanent residents will be no less than 5 per thousand in Chancheng, Nanhai and Shunde districts, and no less than 3 in Gaoming and Sanshui districts. < p > < p > Shenyang and Foshan programs are typical of infant care programs published frequently in recent years. In addition to the implementation plan of infant care, many places have also announced the development plans of infant care institutions. At the end of October, Beijing announced that it planned to build no less than 34 infant care service institutions with demonstration effect from 2020 to 2025. At the same time, for the new residential areas with more than 10000 people, the infant care service facilities should be built according to the planning of no less than 4 nurseries per 1000 people. < p > < p > on November 3, Guangxi put forward at the press conference of caring for “one old and one small” to promote the construction of multi-level pension security system, and proposed to set up and build infant care service guidance centers in 24 cities and counties to promote the improvement of infant care service. Recently, Jiangmen, Anshan, Deyang and other cities have issued relevant regulations or plans. The implementation of the multi regional action plan means that the current underdeveloped infant care service market will undergo great changes. Recently, Yang Wenzhuang, director of the population and family Department of the National Health Commission, told the second Beijing Normal University Forum on the development of child care services. Yang Wenzhuang, director of the population and family Department of the National Health Commission, said that at present, there are nearly 50 million infants and young children under the age of 3 in China, and there are few social institutions that can provide infant care services. The child care rate in various nurseries in China is only 4.1%. Due to such a low rate of child care, many Chinese families often ask their grandparents to look after their children or ask their parents to take care of them after their children are born. < p > < p > among the interviewees interviewed by the 21st century economic report, almost all mothers with young children are very eager for the care of infants under 3 years old. After the birth of the child, Zhang Jing, who has always insisted on working, believes that if there is a good child care center, it will be very convenient to reduce the pressure of office workers. “The baby can have a good care center, and I can also do my own work at ease.” Although she has been a full-time mother for some time, Xu Mei, who plans to look for a new job, told 21st century economic news that the child care institutions are very good, which can not only reduce the burden on adults, but also help babies learn a lot. “Adults can work at ease, and babies can play and learn happily in the care center.” < / P > < p > for families, the earlier the child is sent to the nursery, the less pressure parents have on parenting. Reducing the cost of parenting is expected to bring about an increase in fertility. < / P > < p > according to the data of the National Bureau of statistics, in 2019, the birth population of China was 14.65 million, a decrease of 580000 compared with that in 2018. The birth rate was 10.48 ‰, a decrease of 0.46 thousandth point over the previous year. The main reason is that the number of women of childbearing age aged 15-49 years decreased by more than 5 million than that in 2018. Among them, the number of women of childbearing age aged 20-29 has decreased by more than 6 million. < p > < p > the 21st century economic report reporter survey found that the economy is the biggest factor affecting the willingness to have children, followed by the problem of taking care of children. Mothers call out “it’s difficult to care for them if they can’t afford it.”. Zhang Jing, Xu Mei and Luo Ying all said they planned to have a second child, but they were still on the sidelines. < p > < p > Zhang Jing feels that life pressure is too heavy now. She has to go to work and take care of her daughter who is under 3 years old. She can’t accompany her daughter all the time. She feels that she owes her daughter, “so she wants to have another baby and grow up together.” < p > < p > Xu Mei’s son is less than 2 years old and now takes care of his baby full-time at home. He plans to return to the workplace in two months. “The life pressure is very big, now the price is relatively high, dare not easily have a second child.” It is suggested that we should improve the service level of eugenics and superior education, develop the inclusive care service system, reduce the cost of childbirth, parenting and education, promote the long-term balanced development of the population, and improve the quality of the population. < / P > < p > “the employment rate of women in China is very high, and they also face greater difficulties in childbearing. Therefore, it is necessary for the state to carry out certain policy reform.” He said that many enterprises have employment discrimination because women take maternity leave, and this policy needs to be improved. In addition, enterprises should be encouraged to make working hours more flexible for parents with infants and young children. Huang Wenzheng believes that at present, primary schools are too early to leave school, sometimes even at 3:00 p.m., resulting in many parents needing to pick up their children from work in advance. If the school can see 6:00 p.m. or later for free, the pressure on parents can be further reduced. < / P > < p > “if you want to have more than one child, can the state give corresponding policies to encourage childbearing, such as giving corresponding bonus to mothers who have more than one child. Now the cost of having a baby is relatively high, and office workers will feel the pressure of having more babies. ” Xu Mei said. However, in the 21st century, it is difficult to understand the problem of low investment in education institutions. Yao yuan, director of the Macbeth Ian nursery center, said that he had been engaged in infant care for five years. The reason why he joined the industry was to let more children reduce the conflicts of intergenerational education and solve the worries of young parents’ education. However, Yao told the 21st century economic report that Gaoyou, where she is located, belongs to a small city in Jiangsu Province, and the fees for the nursery center should not be too high. At present, the center has a small class system with 15 people / class. The normal charging standard in spring is 1480-1680 yuan / month, and only 1198 yuan / month in autumn and winter, which can only maintain operation. < / P > < p > another problem is that, at present, the nurseries are just “turnover places” for kindergartens before entering school, and they are facing the problem of enrollment. According to Yao, kindergarten director Yao said that the period of taking care of children in child care centers is too short, and every child normally goes to kindergarten for about half a year. To this end, she needs to continue to recruit students, every autumn and winter is the off-season, only the spring transition class demand is higher. Mr. Wang, who invested 3 million yuan to set up Kunming maoerkai Education Consulting Co., Ltd., told 21st century economic news that they opened the park at the end of last year and found that there was still a large demand for funds to build a nursery center that could really meet the national standards. Mr. Wang said that since 2010, he has been engaged in early childhood education for 10 years. He has found that problems in children’s behavior and learning habits, whether in early education or in curriculum training, are closely related to the inappropriate growth environment before the age of 3. < / P > < p > “therefore, instead of waiting for problems to be solved, it is better to give children enough guidance and intervention in the early stage to help them develop good habits.” “But according to our size, service standards and care capacity, in fact, in Kunming, the charge should be around 6000-7000 yuan per month. If it is in Guangdong, the monthly average is about 15000 yuan. ” < / P > < p > this is related to the affordability of many parents for the charge of nursery centers. According to the survey, parents can accept a lower threshold of fees. Zhang Jing said she was only willing to pay a monthly fee of 1000 yuan, while Xu Mei was about 2000 yuan. “The cost has just been recovered, there is no profit, and there is an epidemic situation. Most of them are in rent, decoration and personnel costs, which is really difficult. If the price increase, many families can not accept it, and the mother can only continue to take care of the baby at home, unable to find a job. ” The low fees also bring a series of problems, such as the low income of teachers and the difficulty to guarantee the service quality. Director Yao pointed out that the teachers with teaching experience in the center currently earn 2500 yuan a month and pay five insurances. Zhang Wenkang, former Minister of the Ministry of health and lifelong honorary president of China maternal and Child Health Association, said at the second child care service development forum of Beijing Normal University that China’s infant and child care service industry is still facing problems such as lagging supporting policies and regulations, prominent contradictions between supply and demand, insufficient total supply and structural imbalance, and uneven service quality We should strengthen policy guidance, mobilize the enthusiasm of all sectors and departments, and promote the establishment of universal benefit, popularization and convenience