Is your fat really useless? Take you in-depth understanding of the use of fat!

Each cell is called an adipocyte. In humans, the main type of adipocytes is white adipose tissue, which is named for its color. Although there is another kind of fat, called brown adipose tissue, we generally think that humans don’t have much brown adipose tissue, so we can ignore it. < / P > < p > in humans, there may be billions of fat cells with a diameter of 70-120 microns. The white adipose tissue in the human body is mainly composed of lipids. The lipid here refers to the stored triglyceride, which is a glycerol molecule combined with three free fatty acid chains. < / P > < p > the remaining part of adipocytes is composed of a little water and organelles, which can produce various enzymes and proteins needed by adipocytes. It turns out that fat cells produce a lot of things, some good and some bad, which affect your overall metabolism. < / P > < p > according to the data, a pound of fat is 454 grams. Now let’s assume that there is an average of 90% lipid in adipose tissue, so about 400 grams is actually stored triglycerides. When burned by the body, 1 gram of fat provides 9 calories, so 400 grams of fat contains 3600 calories of stored energy. Now you should know where the claim that it takes 3500 calories to lose a pound of fat comes from. < / P > < p > the main function of body fat is to store energy. In fact, until 1994, the main idea about fat cells was that when food was scarce, fat cells were the body’s passive place to store energy. This is totally incorrect. < / P > < p > fat cells are really good at energy storage. As mentioned above, a pound of fat contains about 3500 calories of stored energy. Assuming you can burn 100% fat as fuel, a pound of fat is enough for a 150 pound person to walk about 56 kilometers. < / P > < p > people who are extremely obese may have 50-100 pounds of stored fat, which is 17 calories of stored energy, which can keep them alive for at least a few months. < / P > < p > on the contrary, other energy sources in our body, such as carbohydrates stored in the liver and muscle, can only reach 500 g at most. Each gram of carbohydrates contains 4 calories, which is 2000 calories of stored glycogen, not even enough to meet the energy needs of a day. < / P > < p > therefore, the energy of fat is 7 times of all carbohydrates in the body at a low level, and it can be hundreds of times at a high level. Although we don’t want to use the body’s protein to provide energy, if we use it all, it still can only provide about 10000 calories, which is still far lower than fat. And before we run out of protein, we go to heaven. < / P > < p > the difference of energy storage capacity of these nutrients is due to water. Carbohydrates are accompanied by a lot of water: for every 1 g of glycogen stored, 3-4 g of water can be stored. In contrast, triglycerides need only 1g of water for every 1g of fat stored. < / P > < p > even if you store 10000 calories in the form of carbohydrates, you need 7500-10000g of water. Our cells will explode. Because fat does not contain a lot of water, so fat is a very space saving way of energy storage. < / P > < p > in addition, 1g fat provides more energy than 1G carbohydrate or protein. As mentioned above, the value usually given is 9 calories per gram for fat and only 4 calories per gram for carbohydrate and protein. Therefore, in addition to storing more total fat, each gram of fat can provide more energy for the body. Body fat is indeed an ideal form of energy storage. Obviously, from an evolutionary point of view, the special energy storage capacity of adipocytes is an excellent advantage. Being able to effectively store unlimited energy in a relatively limited space makes it easier for us to survive without food. Now it’s just a remnant of another evolution, and everyone hates it. < / P > < p > to be honest, I can’t think of a good reason why men tend to store fat around their internal organs and abdomen. Maybe more visceral fat will help people move fuel quickly when hunting, maybe they need more abdominal fat to protect their organs. Some researchers believe that men’s abdominal fat pattern has no practical effect, just the result of weight gain. < / P > < p > in contrast, women are easier to explain. Their fat is usually on the chest and buttocks / thighs, which makes sense. It turns out that the presence of hip and thigh fat provides energy for breastfeeding after pregnancy. Interestingly, hip / thigh fat, which is usually difficult to control, is most easily mobilized when a woman is breastfeeding. In addition, women’s fat patterns may have evolved due to gender selection. Research has clearly shown that men prefer women with an ideal waist to hip ratio. A woman with a thin waist and full hips is more likely to have the best waist to hip ratio than a woman with more visceral / abdominal fat. In fact, many of the conditions that lead to visceral fat accumulation in women are associated with decreased fertility. < / P > < p > there is a folk saying that adults cannot produce new fat cells. That is to say, you are born with certain fat cells. You may produce more fat during puberty or women’s pregnancy, but this is the limit. Your body can no longer produce new fat cells. < / P > < p > this happens when you have fat cells of a certain size, that is, to reach the maximum physiologically. At this point, the actual expansion of fat cells stimulates the release of factors such as vasodilator II, prostacyclin and other substances that “tell” the body to produce new fat cells from so-called preadipocytes. < / P > < p > preadipocytes are dormant cells, like soldiers waiting for a signal to start. When appropriate growth factors are released, preadipocytes mature into normal adipocytes. < / P > < p > these newly formed adipocytes can now be filled with more fat and glucose. In fact, a new diabetes drug seems to work by stimulating the production of new fat cells, which provides another place for blood sugar and fatty acids. If new fat cells get too big, your body will continue to produce more fat cells. < / P > < p > unfortunately, eliminating adipocytes is almost impossible. Of course, liposuction is feasible, but in addition, the elimination of fat cells is very difficult, only in extremely harsh conditions. < / P > < p > if you ask most people about body fat, they will hate it and want to lose it. Excess body fat is indeed associated with a range of health effects, from insulin resistance to long-term chronic inflammation that maintains low levels. However, in addition to energy storage, the existence of fat also plays an important role in human health and survival. Basically, too much fat is a health risk, but too little fat can also cause many problems. < / P > < p > one of the functions of body fat is to provide a physical buffer for your internal organs. The physical properties of body fat allow it to dissipate strength more effectively than muscle. Athletes in fighting sports may benefit from having some extra fat to protect their internal organs when someone hits them. Of course, in modern society, most people don’t need to worry about these things. < / P > < p > fat cells also act as a barrier, keeping people warm when the weather gets cold. Of course, we can now put on more clothes or turn on the heating, but our ancestors didn’t have that. The key role of adipocytes in immune and inflammatory response may not be mentioned much. The preadipocytes I mentioned above, like macrophages, are critical to the normal response of the immune system. < / P > < p > of course, it’s not an excuse to get fat. But those who have reduced to extreme body fat levels are usually more likely to get sick and feel more inflammation. < / P > < p > this article briefly introduces some knowledge about body fat, hoping you have a more comprehensive understanding. Too much or too little fat is harmful to health, we should control it in a reasonable range. CUISINE&HEALTH