Lung nodule, mammary gland nodule, thyroid gland: how far away from cancer?

Ms. Wang, who has always been suffering from “hospital phobia”, happened to see an advertisement in the beauty salon near her home. The advertisement said that breast massage could be used to eliminate breast lumps. So Ms. Wang bought this set meal and went to do essential oil massage and breast cupping regularly every month.

but slowly, she found that her breast was getting more and more painful and festering, so she had to go to the hospital. At this time, the skin on Ms. Wang’s breast has been ulcerated. It feels like a hard ball, accompanied by gusts of stench. According to the doctor’s clinical experience, it is likely to be cancer.

at the doctor’s suggestion, Ms. Wang had a breast mass biopsy and comprehensive examination. It was found that Ms. Wang was left breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis and missed the opportunity of radical operation.

breast nodules, also known as breast masses, breast masses, is a popular general term. It is not to say that a breast nodule must be a disease, many breast nodules are benign, only a few are malignant. Malignant nodules are likely to become malignant or even become tumors.

at present, the etiology of breast nodules is not very clear. It is generally believed that it is related to genetic, environmental factors, endocrine factors, gene mutation and other factors.

generally speaking, for nodules larger than 2 cm, doctors can determine the benign and malignant by hand examination, and imaging examination also plays an important role. Most benign nodules do not need surgery, and the preferred treatment for malignant nodules is surgery. Some patients who cannot be operated can be treated with drug therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, etc., and the specific plan is determined by the doctor.

a pulmonary nodule is an imaging concept. It is a shadow in the lung that appears on chest CT. If it is less than 3cm, it is a pulmonary nodule; if it is larger than 3cm, it is a mass. Most of the pulmonary nodules are benign, only a few are precancerous lesions or early tumors. If they are malignant nodules, they may become lung cancer. We should pay attention to them.

patients with pneumonia, tuberculosis and other diseases, long-term smoking or engaged in specific occupations may form benign pulmonary nodules due to the deposition of particles in the lungs.

people who have been smoking for more than 20 years and have not quit smoking, have occupational exposure, family history of lung cancer, and have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease themselves are all high-risk groups of lung cancer. Once pulmonary nodules are found, special attention should be paid. If the pulmonary nodule is suspected to be malignant, the best treatment is surgery. Regular examination should be carried out after operation to avoid recurrence.

thyroid nodules are masses formed by abnormal hyperplasia of thyroid cells. There can be one or more thyroid nodules. Some are solid tissues, and some are filled with liquid. Most of the thyroid nodules are benign, most of them are nodular goiter and thyroid tumor, which are mainly observed. Thyroid tumors can be cured by surgery.

only a small number of thyroid nodules will develop into thyroid cancer, and mainly differentiated thyroid cancer. Surgical treatment is the first choice, and most of them can be cured. If it has reached the advanced stage, comprehensive treatment is needed to prevent the tumor from spreading and metastasis.

the common causes of thyroid nodules include thyroid tissue hyperplasia, body iodine deficiency, familial inheritance, radiation exposure history, degeneration, thyroiditis, etc. the examination methods are mainly imaging, including ultrasound, nuclear magnetic resonance, CT, PET-CT, etc.

breast nodules can be judged by observation and touch. Generally speaking, malignant nodules are hard, with poor mobility and fast growth rate. Benign nodules have better activity. They feel rolling in many cases. Their growth rate is slow, and their skin and nipples have no change.

due to the special location of pulmonary nodules, low-dose chest CT is commonly used to detect pulmonary nodules. If pulmonary nodules are found, PET-CT or enhanced CT can be performed to further confirm. If there is bronchial vacuole sign, bronchoscopy can be performed. If malignant nodules are suspected, biopsy can be performed for the shallower pulmonary nodules, and surgical biopsy is required if necessary.

the thyroid nodules of some patients can be touched by hand, and the protruding part of the neck can be felt. When swallowing, the thyroid nodules will generally move with the swallowing action. If the nodule is too large, or dysphagia or dyspnea occurs, seek medical advice in time.

in addition, ultrasound is the preferred examination method for thyroid nodules. Regular physical examination can add this item. If you feel that you have thyroid nodules, you should go to the hospital for ultrasound examination in time to determine whether it is benign or malignant.

it’s not necessary to be too flustered to find nodules. Most nodules are benign, but we should not take them lightly. Even if there is only one in ten thousand possibility, we should pay attention to them.

reference materials: [1] what to do if breast nodules are found in physical examination? Don’t be nervous, first identify the types of breast nodules? D. May 17, 2020 [3] interpretation of thyroid nodules in physical examination report. Jiuhuang science popularization. June 3, 2020