Dark matter is the most popular theoretical model to explain the development of the universe, but the research on finding dark matter particles has not made progress for a long time. For decades, some scientists have been looking for other theories.
the dark matter theory holds that there are a large number of “dark matter” in the universe that scientists have not yet detected, and the ratio of dark matter to ordinary matter reaches 5:1. They play a key role in the development of the universe and the formation of galaxies.
using this theory, scientists have successfully explained many observational data, including the gravitational force between galaxies far exceeds the gravity produced by their masses, the bending of light from distant galaxies when they reach the earth, and the structure of matter dispersion in the early universe.
some alternative theories emerged in recent years, some of which can well explain the evolution of galaxies, and others can explain the bending of light, but they all hit the rocks. In other words, they are inconsistent with the data of the early universe, that is, cosmic microwave background data.
a cosmologist at the University of Geneva, duller, told quantum magazine: “only a well-developed theory can match this data, which is a bottleneck.”
at the end of June, a study published on the preprint website proposed an alternative theory and finally overcame this obstacle. This study is based on Einstein’s theory of relativity.
a fellow astronomer at Case Western Reserve University in the United States, who was not involved in the study, commented on the study: “in 15 years, we have made no progress. This is a huge step. ”
several other scholars agree that this new model looks promising. “It’s a bit Baroque, but there’s no other theory that works, and it seems to work. I admire it.” He said.
the standard model of the universe, also known as Λ CDM model, simply understood, this model believes that dark matter plays an extremely important role in the development of the universe. It can not only explain the various cosmic phenomena mentioned above, but also accurately explain the cosmic microwave background data, which is regarded as the standard model.
the biggest challenge for all alternative theories is to recreate a framework that can interpret CMB data. The modified Newton’s gravitational theory is the most representative one of the dark matter substitution theories.
astrophysicist PADO of NASA’s jet power laboratory and Sperger, director of the center for computational astrophysics at the iron Institute of New York, give examples of the difficulty of interpreting CMB data.
when dense regions of dark matter pull matter toward them, the process of eventually forming galaxies and stars will smooth most, but not all, of the ripples that originally propagate between matter. By comparing the CMB polarization with the form of matter today, cosmologists can clearly measure a result: the residual ripples are only one percent of those seen in the CMB data.
Spiegel said that to reconstruct a framework that can explain these details, the alternative theory needs meticulous work like a needle thread. “We have not denied any of these theories, but any alternative theory has to overcome these difficulties.”
this is just one of the many properties in CMB data that are difficult to explain. Any alternative theory also needs to explain the temperature and polarization of CMB, as well as the distribution of galaxies and constellations since the evolution of the universe.
two theorists at the central European Institute of cosmology and basic physics, zvosnik and skodis, believe that they have overcome this difficulty. The new theory, called relmond, contains elements that can explain invisible matter on a cosmic scale, blurs the boundary between dark matter and Mond theory, and takes the two previously seemingly incompatible theories into consideration On skillfully understanding.
this new theory introduces a universal field on the basis of relativity, which plays different roles in different scales. In the big universe, this field acts like dark matter, and zwisnik calls it “dark dust.”.
in a small universe, such as a galaxy, this field plays the role of the basis of Mond’s Theory – it entangles itself under the action of a standard gravitational field, and its effect is enough to bond galaxies together.
researchers are now expanding the effect of this field on the medium scale of galaxy clusters, or constellations, and think that this is probably the place to show the particularity of this theory.
zwisnik hoped that scientists would soon find dark matter, but before that, he believed that their theory was a good exercise to extend relativity to the limit, not to challenge existing astronomical models.
zvosnik said, “if something is impossible, you miss the opportunity to find valuable information. It has the potential to open up a more successful path.