Thyroid nodules prefer women! Guard against cancer, doctors teach you how to self-test benign and malignant!

Three years ago, during her physical examination, the doctor told her that there were three nodules in her thyroid gland. She checked a lot of information on the Internet, and went to a number of hospitals to consult doctors. Some said that the operation should be done as soon as possible, otherwise the nodule might become cancer, and some said it didn’t matter, so she could continue to observe. In this year’s physical examination, there are still three small nodules on the thyroid gland of trabeculae, one of which has grown to the size of a soybean. Should we continue to observe or should we operate as soon as possible? For this reason, Xiao Liang was confused.

thyroid nodules are common. More than 30% of normal people can find nodules in the thyroid gland. Among them, women are more than men, about 4 ∶ 1, and middle-aged and old people are more common than teenagers. Although thyroid nodules have such a high incidence rate, most of them are benign, and do not worry too much. Malignancy accounts for about 5%-15%.

although the incidence of female thyroid nodules is higher than that of men, the incidence rate of thyroid cancer is 2~3 times higher than that of women. The thyroid nodule in childhood is 50% malignant, and the incidence rate of thyroid cancer is high at the age of 20 and 60.

if the head and neck have been treated with radiotherapy before, the possibility of thyroid malignant transformation is relatively high; and if the immediate family members have medullary thyroid carcinoma or multiple endocrine tumors, the risk of thyroid cancer is also higher.

fast growing nodules indicate cancer, but some patients find that thyroid nodules grow significantly after coughing or sudden exertion, which is mostly caused by hemorrhage in adenoma rather than cancer.

most of the soft, smooth nodules that can be pushed by hand are benign. Hard, fixed and painless nodules may be more malignant.

calcification is often one of the manifestations of many malignant tumors, but the thyroid gland should be treated specifically. If it is sand like calcification, the possibility of cancer is high, but if it is massive calcification, it is not necessarily.

there are also some special examinations for the differential diagnosis of thyroid masses, such as radionuclide scanning, thyroid peroxidase, calcitonin, CD26, CD97 and other serological indicators, which also have a certain reference value in differentiating benign and malignant tumors.

if the canceration is basically ruled out, the intervention is unnecessary. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients with persistent tumor growth or malignant transformation. In view of the relatively low malignant degree of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the observation period of 3 months will not affect the long-term efficacy.

thyroid nodules found by B-ultrasound but not touched can not be taken medicine, regular B-ultrasound follow-up review, if necessary, do CT, MRI examination. Solid or cystic solid nodules should be reexamined every six months. Single cystic nodule should be reexamined once a year, and the signs of hyperthyroidism and blood T3, T4, TSH levels should be paid attention to. If possible, fine needle aspiration biopsy under the guidance of B-ultrasound can also be used. Patients suspected of malignancy or with hyperthyroidism need surgical treatment.

2. The author of this paper is doctor Chang Shi, and the contents can not be used as specific suggestions for diagnosis and treatment, nor can it replace the face-to-face treatment of medical practitioners. It is only for reference. Focus