Recently, many students in pan’anhu campus of Jiangsu Normal University were exposed to be infected with tuberculosis. As of October 14, 22 students in the school were infected with tuberculosis and suspended from school for treatment.
in people’s impression, tuberculosis is a kind of “tuberculosis” easily suffered by the elderly and frail. How can college students in their prime age get infected? How can social life prevent the spread of disease? Is BCG vaccine effective? The reporter immediately contacted Lu Shuihua, director of tuberculosis department and tuberculosis research center of Shanghai public health clinical center, and director of school and children tuberculosis branch of China Anti Tuberculosis Association for answers.
Lu Shuihua said that in recent years, the global TB epidemic is on the rise. At present, China is still one of the 22 countries with high TB burden, and the number of TB patients is the second in the world. Among the class A and B infectious diseases reported legally in China, the incidence and mortality of tuberculosis ranked second. Experts explained that the mortality rate of tuberculosis in China has dropped significantly, and the number of patients with severe tuberculosis has decreased significantly, and the direction of disease prevention and control has also changed accordingly. With the progress of medical technology and the popularization of cognition, people with mild tuberculosis and tuberculosis who were not paid much attention to have gradually entered the public’s attention.
he said that in general, the cluster incidence of tuberculosis is “higher than the society” and has no positive correlation with the local incidence level. Tuberculosis is a respiratory infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is mainly transmitted to other people by the droplets emitted when the patient coughs, sneezes or speaks loudly. Students come from all over the country, do not understand each other’s health status, study and live in the same place all day, once someone has tuberculosis, it is very easy to cause mutual infection.
Lu Shuihua said that the key to the spread of tuberculosis lies in the close contacts. If people stay in the same closed room for more than 8 hours or repeatedly contact for many times, people will be easily infected with TB.
the pathogen of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After being infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, about 1 / 10 of people may suffer from tuberculosis for life. In two years, 5% of the infected people will get sick, and the incidence rate will decrease as time goes on. The immunity of human body to tuberculosis is related to the bacterial load. If the body resistance is very low after infection, it will develop into tuberculosis patients.
Lu Shuihua stressed that students with too much academic pressure, little sleep time and irregular diet are vulnerable to tuberculosis. Senior high school entrance examination students hair coloring incidence rate is higher, mainly because these students just experienced the entrance examination and the college entrance examination, physical and psychological exhaustion, their resistance and immunity are often at a “low point”, more susceptible to infection.
Lu Shuihua said that the occurrence of school clustering is accidental, which is really related to the inadequate prevention and control measures. The prevention of tuberculosis in school needs the cooperation of education, medical treatment, disease control and other departments. The education department should improve the awareness rate of students and parents, encourage students to exercise, and the medical department advocates preventive treatment. Only as a “systematic project”, can the disease be prevented in the bud.
from the perspective of public health prevention and control, early detection of “indicated cases” and early isolation can minimize the harm of public health events. Tuberculosis has been latent for a long time, and students’ cases are often asymptomatic but infectious. Through skin test, blood sampling and other screening methods, it is possible to find “indicative cases” in the first time. According to the latest concept of tuberculosis prevention and control, prevention and treatment are needed for people who have been infected but have not yet developed. Lu Shuihua suggested that students and parents should also cooperate with preventive treatment. Only by screening cases in time can the probability of public health events be reduced.
as the first compulsory immunization for newborns in China, the BCG vaccination rate in China is as high as 99%, and many people wonder: why can they get sick after being vaccinated? Lu Shuihua clarified that compulsory immunization during the neonatal period can significantly reduce the incidence of severe tuberculosis, but with the increase of age, the protection rate against the disease will indeed weaken. So far, there is no second dose of immunization in China, which is not difficult to understand that students will be infected with tuberculosis.
tuberculosis is an infectious disease. After being diagnosed with tuberculosis, students should take the initiative to report to the school and inform their parents that they will not conceal the disease or take the disease to class. Tuberculosis patients can enjoy the free policy in designated TB hospitals. The state provides anti tuberculosis drugs, liver protection drugs and major examinations for active pulmonary tuberculosis patients free of charge. If the clinical does not belong to drug-resistant tuberculosis patients, generally through 6 months of standardized treatment can be cured.
for the prevention of tuberculosis, Lu Shuihua put forward three suggestions: do a good job in publicity and education of tuberculosis knowledge, enhance self-protection awareness and ability; pay attention to environmental hygiene, often ventilate, keep the air fresh, reduce infection and transmission; strengthen physical exercise, enhance physical fitness, and develop good health and living habits. 20